In 1932, Luis Buñuel made a harrowing documentary “Tierra sin pan” (Land without bread) in the Las Hurdes region of Spain. It showed the appalling living conditions of the mountain people, suffering from hunger or malaria, and deformed dwarves suffering from congenital malformation. The film caused a tremendous scandal. What is the situation decades later ? The effort of the Spanish government has been significant and Las Hurdes was modernized. But this tormented land continues to be dogged by its bad reputation.